1. Of material structures: to diverge outwards from a central point.
Etymology: < classical Latin radiāt-, past participial stem (see -ate suffix3) of radiāre to emit rays, to shine, in post-classical Latin also to illuminate (3rd cent. in figurative use, 4th cent. in literal use) < radius radius n.
2. To form or fabricate (a stuff or material) by interlacing yarns or other filaments of a particular substance in a continuous web; to manufacture in a loom by crossing the threads or yarns called respectively the warp and the weft. Also with obj. the web itself, a garment made up of such a stuff or material. †to weave out : to complete the weaving of.
Etymology: A Common Germanic strong verb (not recorded in Gothic): Old English wefan, past tense wæf, plural wǽfon, past participle wefen, corresponds to Old Frisian *weva (North Frisian weewen, West Frisian weve, weevje), (Middle) Low German, (Middle) Dutch weven, Old High German weban, wepan (Middle High German, modern German weben), Old Norse vefa (Middle Swedish väva, Swedish väfva, Danish væve) < Old Germanic *weƀ- (:*waƀ-: *wǣƀ-) < Indogermanic *webh- (:*wēbh-:*ubh-), represented in Sanskrit ūrṇavābhi spider (lit. ‘wool-weaver’), Greek ὑϕή, ὕϕος, web, ὑϕαίνειν to weave. The same root occurs in web (and abb), weft, woof.
3. To constrain or bring into tension by a string (a bow, an arbalest, a catapult, etc.) Formerly also bend up; = Latin tendere. In later times associated with the curved shape into which the bow is brought; = Latin flectere. (Hence branch II.)
Etymology: Old English bęndan, probably identical with Old Norse benda ‘to join, strain, strive, bend.’ (The rare Middle High German benden ‘to fetter’ is perhaps of independent formation.) Germanic *bandjan, < bandjâ- ‘string, band,’ in Old English bęnd. In Old English used only in the senses ‘to restrain with a bond, fetter, confine,’ and ‘to bend a bow,’ originally ‘to hold in restraint or confine with the string.’ From the latter by transference of the word to the bowed or curved condition of a bent bow, came the now main sense of ‘to bow, curve, or crook.’ Compare the partly parallel history of French bander, Old French bender (= Provençal bendar, Italian bendare, bandare, Spanish vendar, bandar, Portuguese vendar, bandar).
4. To bend or turn (something) back, to give a backward bend or curve to (usu. in pass.); (Surg.) to fold back (a flap of tissue) to expose underlying structures. Formerly also: †to bend (the legs) (obs.).
Etymology: < Middle French reflectir to reflect (light), (reflexive) to be brought back (both c1400), reflecter (of light) to be reflected (1530) or its etymon classical Latin reflectere to bend back, to turn round, to retrace one's steps, turn back, to turn away (the face, gaze), to turn back, reverse, in post-classical Latin also to reflect (of a mirror) (c1240 in a British source) < re- re- prefix + flectere flex v. Compare (with alteration after flechir flecche v.) Old French, Middle French reflechir , French réfléchir to reflect (light) (13th cent.), to push back, to send back (1380), to meditate, reflect deeply (17th cent.; compare Middle French se reflechir sur soi (16th cent.)), to meditate (on) or think deeply (about) (17th cent.), and also ( < reflet reflet n.) refléter to reflect (light) (1762). Compare also Italian riflettere (1319 as reflettere ), Spanish reflectir (15th cent.). Compare deflect v., inflect v.
5. To move to a new position by extending the foot to a higher or lower level or across an intervening object or space (e.g. in entering or leaving a carriage or boat, ascending or descending stairs); with adv. or prep., as across, in, into, off, out of, on or upon, over, up (see also branches III and IV).
Etymology: A Common West Germanic strong verb, with j- present-stem (compare shape v.
). The original conjugation (Germanic type *stapjan , *stōp- , *stapan- ) is completely evidenced only in English and Frisian: Old English stæppan , stęppan , past tense stóp , past participle (be)stapen , corresponds to Old Frisian *steppa (3rd singular stepth , stapth , subjunctive steppe ), past tense stôp , past participle stapen . The present-stem is normally represented also in Old High German stephen (Middle High German stepfen ), and West Flemish steppen ; the strong past tense in Old Saxon stôp and in West Frisian stoep , which is the only trace of the strong inflexion surviving in any modern Germanic dialect. The continental West Germanic languages have a synonymous weak verb with pp and without umlaut, (Middle) Low German, (Middle) Dutch stappen , modern Frisian stappe , Old High German staphôn (Middle High German, modern German stapfen ) < West Germanic *stappōjan , where the doubled p appears to be due to derivation from the sb. West Germanic *stappon- (see step n.1); in Low German and Dutch, however, the history of the form may be complicated with that of the original j- present. In Old English the normal form stęppan was Anglian, while West Saxon had the form stæppan, the anomalous vowel of which has not been satisfactorily accounted for. In Middle English the forms with a are confined to certain southern writers (compare modern Somerset staap). The present Sc. stap, recorded from the 17th cent., appears to be a late development. The normal strong past tense and participle survive into the 14th and 15th centuries, but beside them appear two analogical formations: steop, stepen, apparently modelled on the reduplicating verbs (compare the similar development in Middle Dutch stiep past tense); and stap, stappe of uncertain origin. Beside the regular stapen there is also a new past participle stopen. Weak forms are found from the end of the 13th century, and from the 16th century are universal.
6. Something which is laid. A thickness of matter spread over a surface; esp. one of a series of such thicknesses; a stratum, course, or bed
Etymology: < lay v.1 + -er suffix1
Emanate and Expand
Braid and Entwine
Pivot and Revolve
Sending back and Mirror
Pace and Advance
Cover and Coat
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